Gautama Buddha in Vedic religion (Vaishnavism) is viewed as the 9th and most recent Avatar of Vishnu. The Buddhist Dasharatha Jataka (Jataka Atthakatha 461) represents Rama as a previous incarnation of the Buddha as a Bodhisattva and supreme Dharma King of great wisdom.
Origin: Si Thep, Thailand
Date: 9th century CE (Mon-Dvaravati period)
Measurements: 223.5 cm
Source: Norton Simon Museum. Pasadena, California
Having once stood more than nine feet (three meters) tall, this sculpture of the Buddha Shakyamuni testifies to the great reverence shown to Buddhism by the Mons during the Dvaravati period (6th–11th centuries). Colossal images of this type, dating to such an early period, are rare in Southeast Asia.
In its original state, this Buddha would have been displayed in a temple adorned with a precious gem in between his eyebrows, now an exposed cavity. This mark, called an urna, distinguishes the Buddha from the mundane and serves as a symbol of an enlightened being. The arms of this sculpture would have been bent at the elbows, with both hands extended into space and the thumb and index finger of each touching to form the gesture of teaching (vitarkamudra). The double vitarkamudra is a hallmark of Dvaravati-period Buddha sculptures.